Post Extras.

Extras from Post #4: Step #1 & collage.:

Who’s there? collage and notes on where the pieces came from.

Who's there? collage pieces

A bit on the history of collage:

Most information courtesy of Huton, Helen. (1968) The Technique of Collage. New York, NY: Watson-Guptill Publications.

Collage comes from the French word ‘coller,’ which means to paste, stick or glue.

The art of collage can be traced back to centuries ago. Techniques appeared upon the invention of paper and even with various stone and metal applications as early as the 13th century. Upon the age of modernism, collage took on the form we associate it with today (pasting, sticking, gluing).

Some works from art movements such as Cubism, Dadaism & Surrealism featured collage techniques. Noteably, Picasso (a Cubist), Max Ernst & Kurt Schwitters (Dadaists) as well as André Breton (a Surrealist) all utilized collage techniques in their work.

There are various techniques of collage, here are a few defined:

  • assemblage: collecting and assembling media, usually on a 3D plane, in collage form, check out artist Kurt Schwitters 
    Kurt Schwitters 'Geprüft,' assemblage

    Kurt Schwitters ‘Geprüft,’ assemblage

    Jean Dubuffet 'Implantations,' assemblage

    Jean Dubuffet ‘Implantations,’ assemblage

  • fumage: the formation of tones over sectional areas achieved by passing a tongue of smoke from a candle or smoldering wick over the dampened surface of the collage
  • brûlage: the paper (this also applies to fabric) is burned in any way that suggests itself to the artist, check out artist Antonio Saura
  • dècoupage: the delineation of a clearly conceived line — in other words, the illusion that something is painted on when in actuality, paper is applied; with dècoupage, the edges of the paper and definitive lines disappear and blend into each other

    Barbara Engle, 'White on White,' découpage

    Barbara Engle, ‘White on White,’ découpage

  • affiches lacers: this may be hardly classified as a technique, but rather an idea of using discarded material (in the form of hoardings, old posters, notices, etc…) which tended to develop onto a technique in its own right, check out artist Gwyther Irwin
  • déchirage: the haphazard quality of the torn edge of paper possesses a unique flexibility and expressiveness…it combines weight with weightlessness, thickness with transparency, making spatial statements with a clarity that contradicts its subtle overtones — in other words, a technique in which torn pieces of paper are applied and the torn edge is visible and purposely placed, check out artist Robert Motherwell
  • décollage: this involves the action of peeling or tearing away the paper which has been previously wetted and glued; the opposite of collage, this technique removes parts of images instead of building them up
  • froissage: movement and rhythm are suggested on a static plane by the creasing and ribbing of the paper; breaking the surface by rumpling, rucking, and wrinkling awakes the inert into a ferment of activity-the expressiveness of paper is infinite; pieces of crumpled paper are strategically placed to suggest an overall image, check out artist Jean Dubuffet
  • frottage: this indicates the transference of surface forms and patterns, generally in low relief, by rubbing, check out artist Max Ernst 

    Ben Norris, 'Penetrated Landscape,' frottage

    Ben Norris, ‘Penetrated Landscape,’ frottage

  • mixed media: as the name implies, this is a combination of two or several media with paper or any collage material, an, in fact, most artists work on the principle of the union of objects and matter, often disparate origin, (this is one of my personal favorites; I use mixed media in my work)
  • fabric: fabric has been used for collage for as many years as paper; in traditional folk art, sections of cloth have been assembled into various design combinations, many taking practical forms, such as the patchwork quilt
  • photogram: this terminology was coined by Moholy-Nagy of the German Bauhaus movement…the technique basically consists in printing such abstract shapes as are created by paper sections or objects on to sensitized paper — in other words, an image made without a camera, in which items are placed onto, essentially photo paper, and exposed to light, check out artist Nigel Henderson
  • photomontage: this technique may be defined as the pasting of assembled or cut-out parts of photographs into a montage; a montage is achieved by combining various images into one unified piece, often times made to look as though the images belong together (they’re placed seamlessly to suggest so), check out artist Hannah Höch 

    Hannah Höch, 'Hochfinanz,' photomontage

    Hannah Höch, ‘Hochfinanz,’ photomontage

  • natural collage: the elements and the passage of time have transmuted man-made structures and surfaces into an artifact — in other words, natural occurences weather the surface of things such as buildings which creates a collage-like look; you could also interpret natural collage to imply utilizing natural elements within a collage, like leaves, shells and sticks (this is what I think of anyway)

    Natural collage, a peeling wall in London

    Natural collage, a peeling wall in London

  • papier collé: the literal meaning of this-the pasting on of paper-is a technique which applies to the majority of the collages in paper reproduced here (the book); the book sites examples of each type of collage technique